Take Off With Your Hospitality Management Degree

A person interested in a career in hospitality management with a desire to travel should consider the airline industry.

Why Consider A Job In The Airline Industry?
There are several reasons an individual with a degree in hospitality management should consider a job with an airline. First, airlines offer great benefits. In addition to the standard benefits like insurances and retirement, airlines typically offer travel benefits to their employees. These travel benefits can include free airfare anywhere the airline flies. While there might be the catch of “space available,” the savvy traveling airline employee can navigate the schedule and look for the flights with the most open seats to avoid being bumped to the next one. Free or discounted travel is a benefit worth thousands of dollars. With the cost of airline travel going up due to increasing fuel cost, the savings for vacation or just a weekend get-a-away can quickly add up. Secondly, airlines are financially stable again. Although the airline industry did suffer after 911, they are thriving once more. During the past several years, several airlines have even purchased others and merged their operations to become some of the largest in the world. Thirdly, some employees have the ability to air commute to work. Flight attendants for example can live in almost any city the airline flies while being based out of another city. Prior to a being on duty, the employee catches a flight to the work city. After completing the rotation, the worker takes another flight home. This a great benefit to some individuals allowing family life to remain stable while enjoying a great career at the same time.

What Positions At An Airline Would Be Available To A Person With A Degree In Hospitality Management?
The career opportunities are almost limitless at an airline for a graduate with a hospitality management degree. Flight attendants are some of the most recognizable employees at an airline. Good flight attendants are always in high demand as airlines are looking for warm, friendly people to serve their customers in flight. A potential flight attendant who speaks a second language is a plus for airlines serving international destinations. While flight attendants might be the first position at an airline that comes to mind, it is definitely not the only possible position for someone with a hospitality management degree. Airlines also need individuals who know how to serve the customer at the ticket counter and the gate. This is especially true when flights have been delayed or canceled and the traveler has to be re-routed. Larger full-service airlines have special lounges in many of their hub cities that service the frequent flier and allow them to relax in a more comfortable setting pre-flight or during layovers. These lounges are staffed with individuals who create welcoming and relaxing atmosphere just steps from the busy and often hectic terminal. Many airlines also hire culinary experts who work to create the meals enjoyed in-flight. All of these positions need qualified supervisors and managers who work to make sure the whole operation runs smoothly.

Where Are Jobs In The Airline Industry Located?
Jobs at an airline are limited to places where airlines fly. These tend to be the locations where people travel for work and vacation. Employees often have the ability to transfer to another location should a position there be available. Upper management positions are located in the city where an airline’s general offices are located. Potential candidates for these positions who do not live in that particular city would most likely be required to relocate. In the United States, these cities include Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas and Denver. Most airline industry jobs are located in the cities where the airlines have their hub terminals. These cities act like spokes in a wheel. Flights often leave from the larger cities taking passengers to their destination. The plane will often turn around and fly back to the hub city allowing other passengers to connect to other flights. A smaller number of jobs can be found in the termination cities. These are the locations where flights arrive and then immediately depart back to the hub city.

An airline might not be the first idea that comes to mind for a graduate with a hospitality management degree. However, they are great places to work and offer some great benefits.

Hospitality Management 101

For people interested in entering a career in hospitality management, the opportunities are limitless.  Just because there are endless possibilities doesn’t make hospitality management the right career choice for everyone.  So how does someone know if hospitality management is the right career path?  Here are some answers to some of the basic questions regarding hospitality management.

What is Hospitality Management?
Hospitality management is the running of establishments where people go to relax and have a good time. A hospitality manager runs the places that host people. These businesses include hotels, spas, resorts, cruise ships, restaurants and casinos. These careers are a part of the service industry. As a hospitality manager, a professional would be expected to make sure a guest’s stay or dining experience meets both the company’s and guest’s expectations while keeping an eye on the bottom line. A hospitality manager must possess skills to supervise the establishment’s staff ranging from a handful of employees at a small restaurant to hundreds on a cruise ship or large resort. Hospitality managers must also be able to remain calm under pressure and possess a high degree of people skills. There is no greater example of this than when a guest is irate and belittling the staff. It is the manager’s job to defuse the situation as quickly and calmly as possible acknowledging the guest’s issue while not giving in too quickly or easily.

Where Are Hospitality Management Positions Available?
The simple answer to this question is anywhere in the world. A qualified hospitality manager has the ability to live wherever he chooses. Live in a rural area or a big city. Choose to stay domestic or travel the world and visit exotic locations. For the less adventurous, a hospitality manager can live in her hometown and manage a restaurant or hotel. For people who desire to travel, the locations are endless. Live in a mountainous area and work at a restaurant or ski resort. Chose to live in a seaside town and work at a number of locations that cater to beach vacationers. The options are as open as the imagination. For people interested in living and working abroad, it would be wise to consider a school that offers courses in the primary language of the desired destination. For someone wanting to work at beachside resort in Portugal, it would be wise to know how to speak, read, and write Portuguese.

How Does A Person Become Qualified For Hospitality Management Work?
The place to start would be earning a degree in hospitality management.  Many colleges and universities offer specializations in hospitality management as a part of their business school programs.  However, there are several leading universities that have established a school for just the study of hospitality and tourism management.  These schools’ curriculum closely parallels that of the school of business with the entire focus being placed on the hospitality service industry. Within these schools, it is possible to specialize in restaurant management, hotel management, tourism or other industry-related fields.  Core subjects of study include administration, information technology systems, accounting, human resources, management, and other subjects.  Most schools also require students to complete an internship and complete a specified number of work hours in a hospitality-related industry as a condition for graduation.  For people who have already earned a business related degree, it is possible to find schools that offer certificate programs as a part of continuing education.

The sky truly is the limit for careers in hospitality management. There are of number of different fields and career choices and the ability to choose career location. It all starts with earning a degree or continuing education certificate in the hospitality field best suited for your individual personality and interests.

Hit the Road with a Hospitality Management Degree

People who dream of being able to travel for a living or work in a tourist destination should consider a hospitality and tourism university degree program to earn a dream job. Jobs for graduates of hospitality and tourism management programs from universities find an excellent employment outlook with high paying position. Doors often open wide in this industry when a person possesses a university degree. Due to the immense range of employment locations, types and levels in organizations, positions are plentiful in the tourism and hospitality field. Choosing the correct education is important to find a career in travel, tourism or hospitality.

What Makes an Excellent Hospitality and Tourism University Degree Program?

There are basics to consider when choosing a hospitality and tourism degree program. First, the university should be recognized and accredited. This allows graduates to hit the job market with the credibility of the university behind them. Additionally, students searching for hospitality and tourism management degree programs should look at the course levels and options. A university degree takes longer, up to four years, however, the job prospects in the management ranks at tourism and hospitality employers increases substantially with more postsecondary education.

What Tourism, Hospitality Careers Result from Degrees?
Three broad types of positions are found in the hospitality and tourism field: supervisory or management positions, independent entrepreneurs who start up businesses in tourism and hospitality and front-line jobs where people work directly with customers. In each of these types of positions, people often find the jobs demand travel for a living. Some example of specific employment opportunities and types of employers for hospitality and tourism management graduates include:
• Private tour companies that operate recreational and tourism enterprises such as retail outlets, spas, fitness facilities and tourism attractions
• Marketing, advertising and providing guided tours at tourism destinations, resorts or hotels
• Nature or eco-based green jobs for recreation areas and parks offering camping and wilderness adventure tourism
• Special events such as festivals and workshops and other tourism services at holiday destination hotels, resorts, theme parks, convention spaces and attractions
• Planning and operating non-profit services for agencies that offers health, leisure and sport programs
• Jobs in food service and accommodation locations such as universities, colleges, hospitals, large resort operations, convention centers and airlines

Hospitality and Tourism Management Degree Opportunities Plentiful
As a top holiday destination in the United States, it is no surprise that one of the country’s leading tourism and hospitality management university degree programs is found in Florida. Florida International University‘s School of Hospitality and Tourism Management is one of the highest rated hospitality and tourism programs in the U.S. with an annual enrolment of 1,400 undergraduate and graduate students. The university offers a range of tourism and hospitality management degree options that reflect the scope of opportunities in the job market. It has a Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management, Master of Science in Hospitality Management and Executive Master of Science in Hospitality Management degree programs, as well as certificate programs in various hotel, restaurant, hospitality, travel and tourism specializations.
People excited about the possibility to travel for a living and work in a variety of hospitality and tourism locations should consider a degree in this field. These types of dreams jobs are found around the world and close to home.

And, they are typically located in fun places where your employment places you in an entertaining environment.

Getting Snowed with a Ski Resort Management Degree

Winter resort management requires an understanding of ski area operations. Obtaining this type of knowledge is best compels students to choose schools within close proximity to ski areas. Here, valuable hands-on training is available. Also, many entry-level management ski resorts positions are routinely filled by professionals holding general lodging and hospitality degrees. Graduates with the more targeted ski resort management associate’s or bachelor’s degrees have the advantage possessing specific technical training unique to ski areas.

Associate of Science in Ski Resort Management

People who enjoy skiing are attracted to mountain living. They possess an appreciation for the dynamic atmosphere of ski resorts. And, if interested in career choices in this environment, individuals should consider an associate’s degree in ski resort management. This high-pressure job – where long hours are the norm during short revenue-generating seasons – has broad applications and can lead to resort employment in some of the most beautiful areas of the world. Employees with ski industry skills are better equipped to manage unique technical aspects of the ski industry, particularly if they obtain their education and training in or near a ski resort.

Education Prerequisites
Admission to most community colleges requires a high school diploma or equivalent, such as a GED. Although SAT or ACT scores are generally required for admission to 4-year colleges and universities, this is sometimes not necessary at the community college level. For some ski area related courses, certain physical standards must be met.

Program Coursework
Usually, associate’s degree programs in ski resort management require an internship or independent study with established ski companies and resorts. Advantages of enrolling in or near a ski resort town are the unique partnerships formed between schools and working experts.
Classes might include hospitality supervision, cost control or restaurant accounting. Other topics cover:
• Housekeeping management
• Hospitality law
• Mountain operations
• Ski area risk management
• Ski area planning

Career Information

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, it is anticipated that employment for lodging managers in general will increase five percent from 2008 to 2018. Salaries fluctuate greatly.

Continuing Education Information
A certificate of completion in ski resort management is also available at institutions offering an associate’s ski resort management degree. Internships are often a vital component of the certificate program. And for students pursuing a general two-year hospitality or business degree, a certificate in ski resort management is regarded as a useful complement when entering this field.

Bachelor of Science in Ski Resort Management
Upper-level studies equip prospective ski resort managers for a wide range of responsibilities, though not all ski resort managers are involved in every aspect of running a large resort. Some aspects focus on mountain operations, others on real estate development, while a great many work in those areas where money is exchanged on a daily basis like restaurants, nightly lodging and lift ticket purchases. Many managers in this field aren’t required to possess a bachelor’s degree in ski resort management per se, though it certainly helps. A bachelor’s degree in hospitality or resort management may qualify the applicant for entry-level positions without the need for targeted ski resort management knowledge.

Education Prerequisites

People interested in obtaining a bachelor’s degree in ski resort business management are often required to obtain an associate’s degree in ski resort management before being admitted to the upper-division program. Consequently, the joint program might require five years to complete due to scheduling conflicts. Admission requirements to a ski area management program vary depending on the school, but as with most undergraduate programs, a high school diploma or the equivalent is required, plus an acceptable grade point average in addition to SAT or ACT scores, though not always.

Program Coursework
Students in the program usually take courses dealing with the management of ski schools, alpine and Nordic races, restaurants, drinking establishments and the full spectrum of nightly resort lodging. They should develop an understanding of daily and seasonal lift ticket pricing and sales, ski rental and repair facilities, and retail shopping outlets. Managing staff is often an important aspect of a ski resort manager’s duties. Other coursework extends to mountain operations like artificial snow making, the ski patrol, lift operations, lift maintenance, snow removal and grooming.

Real estate development is a significant revenue generator and requires working knowledge of:
• Subdivision planning
• Hotel and lodge design
• Condominium construction
• Golf course development

Sales and marketing are likewise essential to a resort’s long term viability. This might entail classes in:
• Advertising
• Budgeting
• Strategic planning
• Public relations
• Career Information

From 2008 to 2018, employment for lodging managers in general is expected to increase five percent according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Now That You Have a Hospitality Management Degree, What’s Next?

If you’re thinking about majoring in hospitality management you’re probably wondering, “Where do hospitality management graduates work?” The fact is that there are many different careers in the hospitality management field; many of them you probably have never thought of before. The hospitality industry includes everything from movie theatres and museums tours to restaurants and five-star hotels to cruise ships and resorts. Hospitality is the biggest industry in the world, and in many countries it is the main source of income.

Customers are Your Management Focus
If you are going to work in HM you will be responsible for managing a team and ensuring that customers are able to enjoy their leisure time. You will need to get a degree in hospitality first, which you can do at a traditional college campus or an online university. There are certificate programs as well as associate’s, bachelor’s and master’s degrees that can help you build a career in this industry – it all depends on how far you want to go. Some people are also able to work their way up through the ranks without getting a degree, but this can require many years of very low pay and missed opportunities along the way. Most experts agree it is best to get at least a bachelor’s degree and get some experience working entry-level jobs in the industry while you’re in school.

Career Choices are Many
The career choices in the HM field are plentiful. You could work as a hotel manager, either managing an entire hotel or managing a department within a very large hotel, which typically requires at least a bachelor’s degree in hospitality management or business. Event planning is another popular career choice, which could involve event and public relations planning for everything from weddings and anniversaries to charity events and corporate functions. Other HM careers include work as travel agents, cruise ship directors and managers for restaurants, resorts, spas and other leisure-related businesses.

Work Anywhere and Everywhere
Hospitality management graduates can find work all over the world or stay close to home. There are career opportunities in tropical locations, major metropolitan centers and quaint country settings – it all depends on where you want your career to take you. The hospitality industry is expected grow by five percent during the coming decade. The industry employs a large number of managers who typically do not stay in these jobs for very long. The need to replace these managers creates job opportunities in an array of different industry needs as well as locations.

Wage Earnings are Great
Median annual wages for lodging managers were $45,800 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,970 and $62,880. A large part of hospitality management is food service. Here, qualified managers can expect to earn an average annual salary of $46,320. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,670 and $59,580. Employment for managers in the gaming industry continues to rise faster than any other average occupation and is expected to grow an additional 14 percent in the coming decade. Qualified gaming managers earn from $45,500 to $68,900 annually.

So, with your newly earned hospitality manager’s degree, you will find a vast amount of opportunities throughout many desired locations where you can out to use your acquired education and skills.

Opportunities Abound with an Online Hospitality Manager Degree

If you would like to work in the hospitality industry and the prospect excites you running a hotel, then consider earning a hospitality management degree. The increase of affordable international travel has been an important impetus boosting the hotel management industry. The job opportunities in tourism and hotel management are projected to experience a 17 percent growth through the coming decade. Therefore, if you are interested in this field, you are at the right track.

Opportunities are Everywhere
There are a lot of career opportunities awaiting you once you graduate with a hospitality management degree. The available of online hospitality management degree programs offered by many prestigious online universities will ease your degree-earning process. You can easily, and comfortably, become equipped with the required knowledge and develop the necessary skills to face hospitality management career challenges.

Area of Study in Online Hospitality Management Degree Programs
Hospitality Management covers a wide range of areas which include hotel and resort management, hotel security and business finance management. The online hospitality management degree programs offered by online universities will be different from one institution to another. Each program may focus on a specific area. So, you need to choose an online hospitality management degree program that focuses on your selected area of interest. Basically, an online hospital management degree program will covers the basic topics such as resort management, food and beverage management, club management, as well as facility accounting and financial Management. The available of online degree programs allows individuals to take hospitality management courses comfortably at home or locations like an internet café, library or places that have connection to the Internet. The online degree programs will perfectly fit into any present business schedule if a working individual wants to advance a career or make a change to the hospitality sector.

Job Opportunities are Varied and Many
As a Hospitality Management degree graduate, you can start your career in various fields such as:
• Hotel or Resort General Manager
• Assistant Hotel or Restaurant Manager
• Food and Beverage Manager
• Convention Service Manager
• Front Office Manager
• Reservations Supervisor
• Marketing and Sales Director
• Event Planner
• …and more

Although the graduates with a hospitality management degree tend to work in travel and hotel management fields, the career choices are not limited to these. Qualified individuals can also enter the hospitality corporate environment applying for many business-related positions in departments such as human resources, finances and sales and marketing. There are many and varied choices in a career selection after earning a hospitality management degree online.

Earnings are Exceptional as Well
Based on some research done by payscale.com, an individual with a hospitality management associate degree having minimal experience can expect to earn an average annual salary of $38,000. Typically graduates with an associate degree in hospitality management will start a career as an assistant manager and can follow a career path eventually earning a six-figure income.

Online hospitality management degree study has become one of the most popular Internet programs in conjunction with the growth of the hotel management industry. Many career opportunities are waiting for graduates gaining either an associate or a bachelor’s degree.

Don’t Shy Away from Constructive Criticism

Are you that hospitality manager always seeking ways to solicit feedback while constantly keeping open arms welcoming constructive criticism from customers, associates and possibly close family members? Sure, sometimes receiving feedback is a definite blow to the ego and a downright unpleasant experience. Although you request such feedback, often you might interpret it as an unwarranted attack. But, if you lack receiving timely feedback, you’ll miss whatever opportunity it presents to accurately define your own shortcomings that could help you make needed corrections and thus profit from your mistakes.

Take the example of each and every top athlete in the world at whatever their sport might be. These people actually hire professionals who have the sole purpose but to evaluate their performances and offer a “critique” that acts as the basis for creating a program toward becoming better at what they do. Even the best professional golfers in the world consult with the guy carrying their bag for miles about which club they should select on the next shot.

People who fail are one that typically reject the concept of feedback and always avoid taking personal responsibility for their actions. These same individuals normally have a great challenge admitting to any shortcomings and frequently lash out angrily when confronted with criticism. They are more concerned toward deflecting blame or denying personal responsibility. Many people are way too thin-skinned when receiving feedback taking any criticism way too personally and often misconstrue what may be honest and sincere constructive criticism for a personal attack. These people tend to become overly defensive and quite argumentative feeling a great need to debate the critic’s view of their personal shortcomings when fleshed out in the open air of discussion.

Sure, not all feedback is going to be accurate. Yes. Many people do judge quickly without studying more deeply. Also, not every piece of criticism requires life-changing action. But, a good piece of advice states that successes never the end result of hard work alone. A person must find room to work toward always improving performance even if always working hard.

People should never obstruct receiving criticism and feedback. The very act of never soliciting feedback may be that one self-inflicted obstacle that blocks a person’s true potential. It is an important aspect about true personal growth that you solicit honest feedback from associates, close friends and even your boss. Consider the following tips when you are involved in your next feedback situation:

  • Don’t kill the messenger. Focus on the message and do not take it personal
  • Avoid becoming defensive and upset. Always consider each and every input
  • Never interrupt someone’s feedback message and do not argue with them
  • Act like a homicide detective gathering just the facts from the feedback
  • Never attempt rationalization as a technique denying personal responsibility
  • Ask open-ended questions so you can gain an understanding of how the feedback was formulated. Ask for specific examples of how your critic characterizes you
  • Solicit useful suggestions for corrective action you can implement quickly

Always be appreciative for the feedback and advice you receive since you may develop excellent sources that can act as a true and positive sounding board during what should be a long and productive hospitality management career.

The Frontline Controls the Bottom Line

Everyone has heard the age-old adage that the bottom line of any business is directly related to its frontline – the company’s employees. Actually, when it comes to a customer’s perspective of a hospitality company, the employees are the business. How often do customers come in contact with organizations’s executives?

Therefore, frontline employees are definitely the face of every hospitality business. However, do hospitality management leaders consistently perform with this philosophy in mind? If a true and stark assessment is actually conducted the answer is a resounding “no.”

The frontline employees are the doers. In a restaurant setting these are the servers, bussers, bartenders, hosts and hostesses who should be the most important people within that company. The concept is easy to grasp intellectually, but the reality is sometimes overlooked. These are, typically, the lowest wage earners in the organization and more than usually are thought of as expendable but remain the most important employees from a customer’s perspective.

The reality paints the picture that even if this frontline fails to measure up to their respective duties, it makes no difference how smart and educated the senior vice president for operations actually might be. The relationship between the customer and the company is reflected in what transpires between the frontline employee and the paying patron. The type of relationship is dependent upon how that employee does his or her job. This is true throughout the hospitality industry despite the setting – restaurants, hotels, bars or any other venue where frontline employees are entrusted with the care of a customer’s needs.

When an executive calls in sick there is no great ripple in the daily operation of the company. However, if a bartender and a server are no shows for a particular shift, something is surely going to happen to the level of customer service. Furthermore, that level of customer service is always productive when these frontline employees perform duties with enthusiasm and pride. However, if they are untrained, unenthusiastic or just outright bored, no amount of upper level brilliant executive management will help the real world situation.

The frontline employees should be treated like the star players on a ball team. They should always be honored for their high level of work performance. They need to be recognized. No corporate strategy and goal-making will amount to much without the proper execution of those plans which falls to a company’s frontline employees. It is s simple equation: the customer is either satisfied or is not. The frontline employee is held responsible by the customer for the entire experience – even down to how far from the door they had to park. And, unlike tip level executives referring to charts and reports, frontline employees do not need statistical computer printouts to know what’s going on since they live what’s going on. They are the team members doing the scoring so they know how the game is shaping up at all times.

What is missing today when it comes to executive operations is the actually knowing of what is going on at the frontline level in real time. Although intellectually an executive hospitality manager knows the importance of frontline operations, experiencing this or recognizing its importance becomes secondary at best. If it was an important aspect of management knowledge then you as a manger would be throwing employee pizza parties on a regular basis, always calling around to find a place to pitch in when business starts getting busier and performing that mist important of executive functions – talking to frontline employees on a regular basis soliciting their input on how things can be improved. Plus, remember those times in your life when someone offered you a sincere “thank you.” Do you remember how appreciative you were for the simple recognition?

When was the last time you displayed such a level of appreciation toward a frontline employee or group of employees?

Thinking About Changing Your Job to Hospitality Management?

There can be multiple reasons a person wants to think about changing a job including:

  • I’ve gained all the experience possible in my current job
  • The company culture in my current employment doesn’t suit my way of working
  • I want to broaden my experience
  • I’m unhappy with the work I’m doing
  • There are no promotion prospects in my current job
  • I want a change of career and Hospitality Management looks like a great opportunity

Making a Decision is Tough
Before you make a decision to leave your job, take time to analyze your situation. Talk things through with someone and write your thoughts down so that you can remind yourself of your reasoning. Be clear about the exact decision that you are trying to make – what are the implications? Gather relevant, reliable and objective information about yourself and your career options. Make a list of reasons for leaving. Be honest and specific. Make a list of reasons for staying or positive things about the job. Include things that you have learned about yourself and the job and skills that you have developed.

Make a list of what you want to get from your job, such as more challenges, greater flexibility to fit in with family responsibilities etc. and review this with what demands will be placed upon you in the hospitality industry.

Evaluating Your Reasons
Look carefully at your reasons for leaving, and reasons for staying. If the reasons to leave outweigh the reasons to stay, you could justify leaving. Alternatively, you still might feel that leaving doesn’t feel right.

Some people make decisions quickly because they like things decided, but they don’t always take the time to consider all the options and can make the wrong decision. Other people hate making decisions as they think a decision shuts off other possibilities. Evaluate your reasons for a few days. Make an interim decision. If the decision feels right, go with it. If not perhaps you need to look at your options again.

Making the Final Decision
Before making a final decision, discuss your concerns with someone who can be objective, and who knows enough about your situation and the job market to tell you what they think. This could be a:

  • Relative
  • Friend
  • Colleague
  • Former employer
  • School Career adviser

If you’re still not sure what you want to do, perhaps you need more information. Try to identify what is stopping you from making a decision and work from there.

What Are Your Options?
I’m going to stay in this job a bit longer because I haven’t been here long and it might look bad on my resume if I change jobs again. The job market is unstable at the moment. I can take evening classes to improve my prospects, or…

I’m going to leave this job to look for a new job in Hospitality possibly going back to school for my management degree or entering a company-sponsored hospitality management training course.

Changing Careers, Not Jobs
Never consider a move to the hospitality industry – or any move to a new area – as merely a job change. This is a life-changing decision that needs careful thought and help from others – friends, family and professional guidance – so you can make the correct decisions.

So, What Do You Cater To In Your Job?

Catering managers run different kinds of food preparation and serving businesses. They work in a variety of diverse settings including on-site catering (parties, weddings, corporate events), restaurants, cafes, specialty food establishments (pizza, Oriental, bakery, etc.) and fast-food outlets. They may manage one location, but very experienced professionals who work for catering companies or large food service companies may supervise more than one location. Work activities could include running school cafeterias, restaurants, specialty food outlets, fast-food outlets and special catering events. Whatever kind of place is operated, catering managers need to create the correct kind of atmosphere for that specific business – fun, serious, formal, or romantic – and make sure food and service is top quality.

Duties Overview
Professional catering managers working at individually owned restaurants or fast-food outlets might be responsible for everything that goes on. They might organize repairs to the building, think up special offers, sort out advertising, order food and greet customers. If managers work for a restaurant that’s part of a chain or that is inside a hotel, they will probably report to a general or area manager. People in the head office will deal with marketing and publicity.

The duties that are common to all catering/restaurant managers are:

  • dealing with staff issues (work/holiday rotas, motivation and discipline)
  • dealing with customers (who might have a complaint or a special request)
  • making sure the equipment and furniture are in working order.

For example, a member of staff who is laying out tables may find there are not enough glasses or napkins. The manager will have to make sure that replacements are found quickly. Organizing staff and equipment are critical jobs. This is especially so in outside catering events, where the kitchens, the eating areas and the staff all have to be got into place in a very short time (and then everything has to be cleared up afterwards). In small restaurants and fast-food outlets the manager will have to do things like cashing up (checking that the amount of money taken matches the amount on the till receipt), book-keeping and taking cash to the bank. They might also train staff and, when the restaurant is very busy, they will help out by taking orders and serving customers. In bigger places they might have an assistant to help out.

Personal Qualities and Skills
As a catering/restaurant manager you need to stay calm under pressure and still get things done. You must be well organized and enjoy being busy. You must like working with people in this job – colleagues, staff suppliers and customers. You need good communication and interpersonal skills. It may be useful to speak a foreign language. You must be able to motivate staff and manage budgets. You need knowledge of health and safety issues and should be willing to keep up to date with changes.  It’s also a job for people with a lot of energy. You’ll have to work long hours and be happy to work when other people are enjoying their free time. You’ll also be on your feet a lot – this isn’t the kind of management job that can be done from behind a desk.

Pay and Opportunities
Salaries for catering managers vary with the size and type of operation. The pay rates shown here are approximate. Salaries are in the range of $21,000 – $25,000 a year, rising from $25,000 – $30,000. Higher earners can make around $35,000 – $50,000 per year. Experienced managers supervising complicated and complex operations – many with multiple locations – are usually found in corporate executive positions making six-figure incomes and more.

Time on the Job
Catering managers work 40-60 hours per week; however, long hours are usual in catering and many work shifts, weekends and public holidays. Management trainees with large companies may be expected to move to different parts of the country to gain wide experience. The hospitality industry is a major employer and there are lots of opportunities for managers. You could work in a hotel or restaurant, a themed pub chain, the armed forces, a canteen in a factory, prison, school or hospital, or for a contract caterer – responsible for more than one restaurant.

Adult Opportunities
It is illegal for any organization to set age limits for entry to employment, education or training, unless they can show there is a real need to have these limits. Some entrants have relevant skills and abilities gained in the catering industry, for example, food service and preparation or bar work. If you are working in the industry or have gained relevant skills, you can attend college part-time to study for qualifications such as a Bachelor or Master degree in hospitality management.

Who is In Charge of Cleaning up the Mess?

Domestic services managers make sure that large residences such as hospitals, universities and colleges, residential homes, schools and hotels are clean and well maintained. The title of the job varies depending on where it takes place. They are known as housekeepers in the hotel industry and domestic bursars in university halls of residence. The duties are very similar, despite the different titles. Domestic services managers must understand the equipment and techniques that are used to do the cleaning, even though they don’t do it themselves. They are responsible for the materials and equipment used, and must keep up to date with new technology.

Hospitals Need Organized Cleanliness
Many domestic services managers work in hospitals and organize teams of workers who keep the inside of the building clean and in good condition. For obvious reasons, hygiene and the control of pests are important factors in hospitals. Other duties may include:

  • organizing laundry services
  • arranging repairs
  • organizing and maintaining furnishings and interior decorations
  • allocating living accommodation in hospitals to medical and nursing staff
  • high risk cleaning, for example operating rooms.

Cleanliness Demands Time
Domestic services managers organize work rotas, and train, supervise and check the work of the domestic staff. They are usually responsible for taking on new staff, so need to be confident in personnel and industrial relations.  A lot of time is spent on administration and managing budgets. Domestic services managers often work within a tight budget, and have to find the most cost-effective way of organizing staff and providing an efficient service. Managers sometimes live in their place of work, so they can be on call at all times.

Personal Qualities and Skills
You must be up to the physically demanding aspects of the job. Much of the day is spent walking around, monitoring work and training staff. You need to have good organization, planning and management skills. And you must be capable of dealing with sudden crises calmly and efficiently. It is also important to be a good team builder. You need to win the confidence of the staff; many of whom are low paid. You must keep the staff motivated and make sure that they understand the need for high standards. You need good communication skills. You need IT skills for administration and good financial skills to manage budgets. You should have a good knowledge of equipment and health and safety issues and a willingness to keep up to date with changes in technology.

Pay and Opportunities
Salaries for domestic services managers vary, depending on the type and size of operation they work for. The pay rates shown are approximate. Salaries are in the range of $20,000 – 25,000 a year, rising to around $30,000. Higher earners can make around 37,000 a year, and up to 58,000 for senior appointments. The basic working week for domestic service managers is around 50 hours. However, long hours, shift, weekend and public holiday work is common. Domestic services managers work throughout the world in hotels, hospitals, universities and colleges, residential homes and schools. In some places, a general manager fulfills the duties of domestic services manager and catering manager.

Adult Opportunities
It is illegal for any organization to set age limits for entry to employment, education or training, unless they can show there is a real need to have these limits. Some entrants have relevant skills and abilities gained in the hotel industry, for example, in room service or as an attendant or receptionist. If you are working in the industry or have gained relevant skills, you can attend college part-time to study for qualifications such as a Bachelor or Master degree in Hospitality Management.

Follow These Tips for Successful Management Failure

The profit margins in the hospitality industry remain quite low so every manager needs every edge he or she can muster to stay ahead of the competition. As a manager, you probably get helpful newsletters and magazines describing ways to spot “bad” employees. However, do you know the warning signs that will provide you indications your own performance is lagging behind?  You need a list of the oh so typical mistakes you absolutely have to avoid that will not only assist you toward getting the best out of your employees whether your hospitality business is a hotel, banquet center, restaurant or casino:

DO NOT Have an Annual Plan
Why bother? Just because most hospitality businesses follow seasonal trends, why make life more organized through proper scheduling like maintenance during non-peak times as well as conducting employee reviews at regular intervals during the calendar year. If you did so, operations would run much smoother. With a carefully thought out plan, even when complications arise, all your proactive foresight should help you keep operations on an even keel.

DO NOT Invite Inspections
When you invite and schedule a friendly inspection – fire, health, safety or otherwise – the results can be carefully incorporated into any plan for  getting situations “fixed” long before accidents occur or any authoritative inspecting agency proffers an “unfriendly” inspection that  can affect your bottom line or tarnish your operating image in the eyes of your insurance company.

DO NOT Spend Time in the Trenches
If you do not wish to be a successful, spend no time in operations involved in the work your employees do. If you were to show up on the floor or even take on duties for a full shift, you would find easier ways for communication between you and your staff since when having you at hand, they can point out things that need your attention opposed to writing a memo or sending an email. Your presence working elbow-to-elbow with employees will boost morale and your image will skyrocket to higher levels in the eyes of the people who work for you.

DO NOT Refer to the Calendar
Got a holiday event coming up soon like a New Year’s Eve? You’ll be busy then anyway but instead of letting a holiday or a season happen to you and your business, why not take advantage of the holiday enthusiasm planning a special themed event to coincide with the holiday. Or, possibly create an aggressive marketing campaign well in advance that will help you capitalize on what will be good times anyway. When you make the most of good times, it will help you survive the not so good parts of the calendar year.

DO Not Pay Attention to Your Competition
The hospitality industry is one of the most competitive. You can find a restaurant on every corner with hotels facing each other across a street. You need to constantly be vigil examining what your competition is doing and then do much better yourself.

DO NOT Allow Staff Working Freedom
The other side of the coin when it comes to management spending time in the trenches is to lead with confident authority delegating responsibility to staff members effectively. When managers feel the necessity to follow up checking each and every little detail, staff members will get the impression you have no trust in their abilities. Micromanaging is a sign of ineffective and unsuccessful management.

DO NOT Expect the Business to Run Itself
When you avoid micromanaging, you can’t just spend all your time out on the golf course. Face it, no one is going to care about the business as much as you will. Therefore, logic does dictate that in your absence activity might just wander a bit off the field you originally chose.

DO NOT innovate
There’s absolutely nothing creative at all about the hospitality business, right?  Your job is to always provide the basics, correct? You need to do what everyone else does, don’t you? Do so and this becomes a blueprint for guaranteed failure. Innovation demands offering newness that no competition does. Be constantly inventing new menu items, different concierge services and always add extra luxury touches to your operation. Each time you create a new aspect of your business you become a market of one until your competition imitates you.

DO NOT Ignore the Computers
One of the most costly line items found when concerning hospitality operations is the high cost needed for computer software. However, where a Hollywood film studio may need a current $1,000 copy if Photoshop, your operation can more than likely get away using free or shared software to make those advertising flyers. There are free software offerings that emulate the latest Windows applications. Your reservations software runs just as well on a free UNIX system. Your needs should be basic where any program that can open, edit and save text files will fill the bill.

DO NOT Ignore the Internet
Every hotel needs a web site. Why? Because, guests can make reservations after finding out online just how wonderful you really are. Why does your pizza parlor need a website? Customers can place orders online. Also, why should you have wireless service at your hospitality business? Duh? Don’t you travel with your laptop – both for business and personal use? Hey, web hosting is cheap these days and building an inexpensive website is also. In fact, you pay moiré for newspaper advertising than you ever will for website creation and hosting. This one is a no-brainer.

Sometimes It’s the Amenities Making a Difference

There are a ton of little pieces of knowledge and insight students of hospitality management have to learn before they can successfully execute real-world employment duties. However, the plain and unadulterated goal for all of the hospitality industry is to give guests what they want. Finding out just what it is that visitors to your hotel want is one of those topics that a great deal of money has been thrown at to discover.

Wants vs. Needs

Furthermore, this discovery of the “wants” – not needs, since these can be easily covered in and first-year level hospitality management course – is also dependent on the type of visitor in question. So, what do guests at your hotel want? Obviously it will not be the obvious – a clean room with clean sheets that have been changed since the last guest was staying there. It will not be the minimum furniture and bathroom accoutrement requirements like a bed, towels or those little bottles of shampoo and conditioner.

Top Wants

One of those highly funded research surveys determined that the most sought after amenity wanted by business travelers is a free newspaper – followed by basic cable. First and third on the list for leisure travelers were basic cable television followed by an ironing board and iron in the room – ready for use. Apparently, the want for an iron and ironing board in the room trumps the mere availability of one on the premises. This revelation may surprise even the most astute hospitality manager since most people would probably assume business travelers would be more concerned with their appearances than people on vacation would. Yet, when surveyed business travelers ranked the trusty ole iron and board number six.

In the Top Five

Additional top five choices for business traveler wants included an in-room coffee maker (with free supplies); complimentary access to premium television channels; and availability of pay-per-view programming. Vacationers completed their wants list with premium television, par-per-view and then an in-room coffee maker. Incidentally, vacationers did not list a want for telephone data ports but businesses travelers did.

Reader’s Choice

As for the branding of newspaper wants, “USA Today” was number one followed by the Wall Street Journal. Although many hotels in urban areas dominated by frequent business traveler use prefer a complimentary WSJ, a standard amenity requirement when it comes to newspapers has become the USA Today.

What to Do

If the facility you manage has none of the amenities described here – get them! Although some are obviously great in particular markets, others would suit every market, for example, in-room coffee makers. But, just don’t stop there. Make sure you provide a minimum of coffee making supplies that are complimentary. This is inexpensive marketing. Research shows that at least 73 percent of hotel guests will use an in-room complimentary coffee making setup. Newspapers are another easy amenity to provide and are typically delivered. And, if you are supervising a small facility where USA Today has limited availability, supply the local newspaper from your area or the nearby metro.

Iron it Out

If cash is limited, only supply an in-room iron and board for your premium rooms. This could also be the thought process for coffee makers as well, but, include a coffee maker in every room before an iron. Plus, if you have amenities in upgraded rooms only, do not let these sit empty. Offer an upgraded room to guests at no additional charge.

This act will benefit you handsomely with repeat business and priceless word of mouth advertising.

Economy Lodging in Continuous Transition

The inception of the economy segment in the lodging industry was predicated on the premise that users looking for just the basics could be serviced through facilities that were fairly Spartan. However, throughout the years the actual definition for “sticking to the basics” has changed dramatically. There are typically two schools of thought when it does come to defining what basic service delivery is in the lodging industry. The first will deal with price and value along with customer satisfaction and market position. The second approach deals with the delivery of minimum services and amenities to the presentation of bare-bones facilities.

Creation Of Intense Competition
Profitability is the goal of any approach when it comes to lodging operations and either of the two above will focus on occupancy although the second approach does recognize the role played by average daily rate (ADR) one creating any room-to-revenue formula. Unlike high-end lodging facilities, and treat into the economy segment has reduced barriers that can provide facilities meeting the minimum construction requirements that can provide an excellent price-to-value four economy lodging seeking guests. Investors and owners will find they face minimal equity requirements while being able to develop a fairly nice 50-room economy facility.

Size Can Matter

This may, on the surface, look like a way to small facility, but in many markets it’s about the exact size. Typically, this type of facility attracts travelers looking for “shelter from the road,” in the form of a cheap place to lay their head for the night. It also attracts owners who are usually newcomers to the industry but not necessarily to the development of properties. Although there will be some type of evolutionary process regarding the operation and services offered by even the smallest hotel, newcomers will learn what old-time experienced hoteliers have known for years that it is always important to improve the mousetrap that you have.

Enhancing The Perception Of Value Versus Cost

Once upon a time finding the amenity of a color television and a morning wake-up call where sought after add-ons that convinced customers they were getting great value for their room investment. With the introduction of any add-on amenity, room rates will have to be raised. However, they should never go higher than what a customer’s perceive level of receiving great value is going to be set. New amenities and services added to economy facilities are usually acted upon when viewing what is offered by their full-service counterparts. Yet, unlike full-service, large budgeted lodging facilities, the small economy lodging operations suffer the constraints of cost, staffing and possibly available land when it comes to adding extra features.

Change in Time/Added Amenities
Although there are some construction constraints faced by many small lodging operators, competition for customers seeking a great price to value has resulted in the addition of such amenities like pools, hot tubs and full equipped exercise rooms. Additionally, complimentary continental breakfast have come and go instead of just offering guests coffee and a selection of doughnut out of the box bought locally. Also, in this age of high-tech everything, even the economy lodging segment is now competing by offering such amenities as Internet access, fax machines and copiers. Although many of these are fee-based, their presence at economy lodging facilities is a welcome plus for many business travelers who were quite budget conscious.

Unfortunately, the recent history of accounting lodging operations dictates that owners and managers are typically in a reactionary mode. When the need arises to add customer attractive amenities, then action is usually put into place. There’s rarely any planning for change but there is also a willingness to accept it when it is beating a loud banging at the hotel’s front door.

Time Management is Critical for Successful Hospitality Manager

One of the most valuable assets for any hotel operation is its general managers in how they spend their time. Schedules and structure are important aspects in every typical business day. There are certain circumstances that differ from hotel to hotel due to the size, type and level of service, the number of different departments as well as other management concerns that need to be coordinated, conducted while being supervised.

Creating an effective universal schedule is not possible for each individual situation. However, each manager should create a basic schedule outline as well as creating and maintaining lists of things to do an organized fashion. While some managers like to use Post-it notes or separate sheets of paper for making lists, others a little more organized using notebooks and still others go high-tech using some type of electronic device for keeping the to do list.

Regardless the particular method for keeping lists and maintaining schedules is important to adopt an outline that helps you keep focused on a variety of different tasks you face on a daily workday so you can minimize interruptions while getting the most from your time. The following is a suggested daily schedule that will not work for everybody and is certainly not a magic trick turning a disorganized, absent-minded individual into grade-A earning time management student. However, as a structure it is a workable example that people can use by dividing your day into quarters.

Quarter #1
the very first thing in the hospitality managers should do when coming in to work is to always walk around the hotel taking note of how it looks and what is going on the moment you walk onto the grounds. Obviously, you want to note anything that comes to your eye that looks out of order making sure that visually the property is presentable to any guests who are either going to their rooms or coming to your hotel for a variety of different things that might be held.

Once you have completed a walk around inspection, always stop by the front office to check on the previous night’s activity including up-to-date occupancy figures, checking out the office log for all expected departures and arrivals will be taking place in the next 24 to 48 hours. Always collect and review various reports were prepared overnight and remove yourself to a quiet place, most likely your office, where you will complete the required daily reporting and administrative chores.

It is during this review and reporting time early in your shift that any interruption should be kept to a minimum. Never have any appointment scheduled for this time and try not to accept or make any telephone calls. Since you’re trying to minimize your interruptions to only those that are of immediate concern or an emergency nature, this is a great time to attend to any of those tests that you really don’t like to do. If you adhere to this type of activity in the early part of your workday, you should get off to a good start having taking care of all the required administrative duties and mundane activities as early in the day as possible.

Quarter #2
This time of the day should see you through your lunchtime and is a good period for conducting inspections and training. This is also a good time to do another faction often see if all the tasks that were scheduled to be performed in the early part today been completed and executed successfully. During this walk around, it is highly recommended to stop and chat with supervisors and other staff inquiring as how they are getting on this particular workday and if there is anything you can do to help them complete their required tasks. This may also be a great time to set up one-on-one training sessions or small group brief meetings to discuss any recent problems and applicable solutions. Around noon is a good time to return any calls you did not accept in the earlier portion of the day. This is the quarter where the general manager should the hotel attending to any and all hands-on activity needed to successfully operate at a high quality level.

Quarter #3
For day shift general managers, this is the period that takes up the first half of the afternoon. This is a good time to conduct any off-site marketing or public relations activities. It is also a good time to schedule longer training sessions for staff, introduce new technology or procedures and many other tasks that may be well suited for afternoon activity. Also, since this is a less structured time of the day, use it for either making calls or receiving them. When communicating with people asking when is a good time to call, tell them this time of day.

Quarter #4
This should be the time of day to include completion of any tasks started earlier that require same-day attention. Also, make a last moment tour of the facility before leaving so you can either attend to anything found needing attention or note same to your night manager (s) for consideration. Cross off all the things to do that have been accomplished on your list and note those in critical need for additional follow-up either tomorrow or at some other selected scheduled time in the future. If possible, always conduct a face-to-face with second shift supervisors to review any goals and challenges for their workday.

A good general manager will vary arrival and departure times as well as points of entry and leaving to gain a variety of different visual perspectives concerning hotel operations.

How to Be a Lead Wolf Hospitality Manager

When it comes right down to it, managers or typically seen as being the focal point for motivation and direction in their operations. However, there are varying degrees of success when it comes to leadership style specifically in the areas of performance that impact employees. There are many styles of leadership that has a professional manager can adopt that will lead to greater success.

What Type Of Leader Are You?
Everybody has heard the cliché about this being the leader of the pack and this is typically referred to one using any “wolf” analogy or metaphor. There are usually two different types of Wolf leaders that have varying degrees of success for the professional hospitality managers that adopt their styles. These are referred to as the Lead Wolf and the Lone Wolf of management.

Adopting The Servant Style
Hospitality managers that adopt the Lead Wolf style of management are usually successful because these professionals take the necessary amount of time to listen to employees, discover and investigate a variety of different alternatives before exacting any kind of decision or action. There are always seeking to involve all the members of the pack looking for consensus and solutions found. This type of leadership always challenges people to go beyond what they think they’re capable of delivering and to submit ideas for solutions regardless of what they may be, since thinking outside the box is a typical trait possessed by a lead. A successful hospitality manager will always feed off of what people submit to them in a while their employees to feed off what they put out also. An important trait for a successful hospitality manager is to always give due credit for any and all employee involvement. The Lead Wolf manager Understands that by giving recognition they will gain respect from the rest of the pack – employees. This type of management style and braces the fundamental belief that individuals do make a difference. Through constant involvement of all members of the organization, a greater amount of new insights and possibilities can be realized. A Lead Wolf manager realizes that successful leadership comes to the creation of a sense of urgency while obtaining mutual commitment to getting things done. This style of management will always present clearly defined and precise activity steps in order to obtain the necessary and productive resolution.

Bering the BOSS

The Lone Wolf leader is usually a hospitality manager that exhibits an autocratic style that is typically viewed as dominating from the top with power. This style of leadership is usually marked by management traits ruled by intimidation. Lone Wolf leaders view employees as a necessary tool that is not capable of any creativity or renovation. The lone Wolf leader also possesses the traits of managing from the seat-of-the-pants and considers their skill and knowledge capable of making constant shooting from the hip responses to situations that confront them. Instead of being confidently proactive, the lone Wolf leader is excessively reactive and believes that their interpretation of resolution is the only one that is correct and necessary.

Empowerment Rules Out

Unfortunately, the environment found in the hospitality industry today requires taking a new and different perspective toward the leadership practices of the past. Where once it was considered that to be successful an atmosphere that was run by a highly reactive, autocratic, individualistic management style was necessary has given way to one that is more team oriented, employee participated, and more empowering proactive style of leadership

A Lead Wolf manager possesses the style that has great confidence in the fact that well-trained employees have the ability to make things happen and this confidence translates into the manager’s ability to empower the same employees to always get their job done effectively and proficiently.

Hospitality Managers Swim in Schools

Anyone interested in a career managing a resort, restaurant, hotel, club or casino needs a great hospitality management education. While there are many advancement opportunities available for people getting promoted through the ranks, you can take a smarter shortcut through getting a degree in hospitality management. This would be a wiser career move even for people already employed in this industry since professionals with a degree gain entry-level management positions.

How About a New Career?

Perhaps you’re working in a job that offers no career advancement opportunities or financial improvement. Selecting a new career in hospitality management is a wise choice because there are ample opportunities. However, you need specific skills and knowledge to become successful. Choice hospitality management schools will prepare students for several restaurant management careers as well as overseeing operations in luxury hotels, resorts and spas. Students might take courses with subject matter such as beverage, catering, marketing, sales, business management and more as part of the curriculum included in pursuit of a hospitality management degree. That degree offered through a four-year course of study can lead to a Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management. Additionally, professionals seeking advance post-graduate study can take courses leading to a Master of Science in Hospitality Management or possibly an Executive Master of Science in Hospitality Management. If you do not want to invest this amount of time toward a degree program, many schools offered specifically focused training offering Certificate Programs for specialized management in areas of hotel, restaurant, lodging, travel and tourism.

Why Choose a Degree Program
Many prestigious schools throughout the world offer a variety of hospitality degree programs that provide students with all the knowledge needed to gain entry to a career. Furthermore, most, if not all, schools have partnership arrangements with many of the largest restaurant, hotel and resort companies in the world. Students benefit from association with these industry leading companies developing real-life skills through paid internships. Although many focused certificate-granting programs can provide students with focused-topic skill development, degree programs offer a greater depth toward acquiring a broad range of hospitality management skills that go beyond operations basics.

What is Learned?

Students enrolled in hospitality management degree courses will gain the opportunity to learn in-depth about subjects such as marketing, instead of merely learning to run a restaurant. A greater understanding is developed acquiring planning and development allowing students to learn about forecasting consumer likes and dislikes as well as predicting trends in consumer usage. Psychology education aids degreed managers in developing interpersonal management and communication skills helping develop successful contact with both customers and employees. Hospitality management is a people business. Sure, you need to know how to run a facility. However, facilities do not run by themselves. People run these. And, people use them, so a highly skilled hospitality manager who possesses great communication skills can become a great host to customers as well as a productive supervisor to employees.

Hospitality is Big Business
Vacations are at the crux of the hospitality industry followed by travel – both personal and business. This is practically the largest business in the world – taking into account all that relates to it. Therefore, many areas relating to different fields of expertise have direct and indirect effects upon the industry. Hospitality managers are the ones responsible for small and large operations. Sometimes a hospitality manager in small operations must be a “jack-of-all-trades” wearing many hats, performing many duties because of the size of the facility and budget constraints. Or, perhaps, a hospitality manager at a large resort is responsible for Guest Relations only, focusing on a single area of facility operations.

In each case, an education received through a hospitality degree program will qualify a student to handle the challenges presented by both.

Job Opportunities Increasing for Hotel Management

Despite recent hard economic times, consumers worldwide are returning to international travel and vacationing in part to the strong industry marketing efforts that have made it more affordable. This increase in consumer confidence is producing an explosive need for more qualified professionals possessing a hospitality management degree. In fact, job opportunities in the tourism industry for hotel management alone are predicted to increase by 17 percent through the coming decade according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. No is the time to go to school to capitalize on this ongoing

Convenient Study Offered Online
The Internet has created a more efficient source for distance learning than has ever existed before. All prestigious universities offering hospitality management degrees have developed online study programs making it quite easy for people to choose this as their method for obtaining the skills needed for a successful career. This feature is especially important for many people who need to maintain their present employment but have a yearning desire to better their career opportunities in the hospitality management industry.

What Areas of Study Are Available Online

There are an incredible amount of diversified management career opportunities within the travel and hospitality management industry. These can include hotel and resort management, hotel security, business and finance management, food and beverage management, plus many specialized areas (usually found at large operations) where specific skills are needed. It is important to note that many online hospitality degree programs are quite focused and will vary from one school to another, One school may specialize offering course focused on resort management while another may be specifically designed to provide you with the necessary knowledge and skills to become a qualified food and beverage services director. You should decide what area of interest you would like to pursue before making a search for what online hospitality management program in which to enroll. Also, decide on what depth of education you wish to obtain. There are hospitality management programs that offer a certificate and then ones that lead to an associate’s or bachelor’s degree in hospitality management.

Learn at Your Own Pace
Learning online is incredibly convenient – especially in this world where laptop computers are becoming as commonplace as cell phones now are. You can take you “school” with you wherever you go when gaining Internet access at cafes, libraries, hotels and other places where the public has access. The degree program you choose online can also be conveniently open with no work deadlines allowing students to complete assignments at their own pace. This is important for working individuals and may well suit people already employed in the industry looking to advance their career path.

Go Get That Job
As stated previously, there are a great many different types of jobs available in the industry including:

  • Hotel/Resort General Manager
  • Hotel/Resort Assistant Manager
  • Food and Beverage Manager
  • Convention/Event Planning
  • Front Office Business Manager
  • Marketing and Sales Director
  • Physical Facilities Supervisor
  • Reservations Supervisor
  • Entertainment Activities Supervisor

And much more since the larger the institution, the more management opportunities present themselves in a greater focused need, for example, Spa Manager for institutions offering services like health and beauty facilities.

Go for the Bucks
According to data collected from payscale.com, a professional with an associate’s degree who has a minimum amount of industry experience can expect an average annual salary around $40,000. An individual with an associate’s degree can start a career as an assistant manager and, with additional experience and education, can one day pull down a six-figure income.

Online hospitality management courses have become popular since the travel and hospitality industries continue unprecedented growth. These opportunities will continue to be quite “hot” in the near future. Taking advantage of these opportunities by selecting an online course for study can lead to a highly financial and personally rewarding career.

Getting Fit for a Management Career

Everyone in the usual 9-5 workaday life has focus on the weekend. This is accompanied by that awful dreaded feeling facing another work week when the alarm so annoyingly sounds Monday morning. Ugh! Do you really have to drag yourself off to another week where work is non-rewarding and outright deplorable? How about a career change to something that gets your heart racing and excites you with easy motivation where you can’t wait to get started every day?

Time is Now

Today, right now, this very moment is an excellent pint in your life to consider a new career change to a fitness or spa center manager at a major hotel or resort chain. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics expects a need for fitness and spa management needs to rise 44 percent in the coming decade. More people have turned to holistic methods for staying healthy beyond depending on medication and doctors. Staying fit has become a daily routine for a lot of people that doesn’t stop when away from home. However, the choices for the health-conscious traveler have, in the past, been limited. Plus, many companies and organizations make the availability of work-out centers as criteria when booking venues for conventions. This has created a need for many large hotel and resort chains to develop facilities catering to providing an arena where guests can enjoy the same amenities afforded to them at home – at their local gym.

Specialized Training Needed

Since this is highly specialized services delivered to a hotel or resort guest, specific skills will be necessary to be an efficient and successful manager. There are also a number of questions you need to ask in a self-assessment to determine if making a career switch to a hotel or spa fitness center manager is the correct one for you. Besides the needed physical fitness trainer skills necessary to have knowledge and experience in this field, you’ll need to acquire business management skills as well. When creating a self-assessment ask:

• Will I enjoy helping guests maintain their daily fitness goals?
• Am I a capable time manager that can schedule and manage the day productively?
• Am I an organized individual capable for overseeing operations juggling duties from clients’ needs to equipment and facility maintenance?
• Am I a detailed-oriented person constantly capable identifying areas of concern with effective corrective action plans at the ready?
• Am I willing to go beyond being a physical trainer and acquire management skills to succeed?

Discover Education Opportunities
If you are already a trained and experienced physical fitness trainer with the necessary credentials and certifications, perhaps taking your career to a management level is the natural progression. If you long for a bit of excitement and change, pursuing a hospitality management degree specializing in fitness and spa management may be an excellent choice for you to make. It is highly recommended before you make this decision to arrange to interview a fitness or spa center manager to get a firsthand view of what their life is like. This way you’ll get a better understanding if your personality and level of fitness expertise are a good foundation necessary to pursue an education leading to a management career.

Finally, contact the major hotel and resort chains to gain information about hiring requirements when these companies look for qualified fitness and spa mangers.

Parlez-vous francais?

Perhaps you have a desire to work overseas in the ever growing hospitality management profession. The best method preparing you to accomplish this goal is to enroll in the correct degree program that specifically prepares students for a career in the international arena. Therefore, there are certain aspects about school selection needed to be considered before you select a training program. It is extremely important that you match school course offerings that prepare you with the skills you need to meet your personal career goals.

What Do You Want To Do?
The very first step toward achieving a career in international hospitality management is to set your own personal career goals. There are so many differently distinct career paths within this industry that you should give a great deal of thought to where you would like at least begin your career in international hospitality management. If your goal is to find an upwardly mobile career path in an international large hotel and resort chain, you would prosper better with at least acquiring a bachelor’s degree in hospitality management as a good start. If your goal is, indeed, to obtain a senior executive level position within the industry, a post-graduate degree would help you gain the necessary credentials.

Skill is Important
Unlike simply choosing a traditional hospitality management course of study, entering the international sector requires different or additional skill sets such as cultural sensitivity, interpersonal skills based upon cultural diversity, management style flexibility, adaptive leadership, intercultural competence (local etiquette) manage limited resources and a great understanding of operating international business. A good recommendation is to discover schools that include second-language courses and both internships and opportunities to study abroad.

Employment Choice May Direct Course Study
If perhaps you have already acquainted yourself with a particular international hospitality company, it would be a great idea to contact this outfit explaining that you are about to enter a study program. Companies are always looking for well-educated young managers but are often disappointed when applicants’ education paths do not fully meet their employment needs. Don’t leave your career up to surprises or disappointments when more than likely any Human Resources Department of an international hospitality company would be willing to advise you about what they seek in entry-level management applicants. Also, check the institutions you are considering for an education to see where their graduates find employment after graduation. Some already partner with international hospitality companies providing the exact type of education needed for successful employment with them.

Do They Have the Props?

You need to review the credentials of faculty at the schools considered. The world of international hospitality management needs instruction from teachers with a great deal of real-world experience. There are quite a few topics covered during an education pursuing a degree in hospitality management that can be learned from a book. But, nothing can ever substitute from learning from people that do. Some subject matter has to be taught by people who have extensive industry experience. There will be faculty with advanced degrees in subjects such as education, business, finance, languages and more. This is natural and well expected since it is noteworthy for any institution to employ a good mix of academicians and professionals with industry-related experience.

Check the School’s Standing

You should start your investigation of any school offering international hospitality management degrees by checking out the institution’s accreditation. One of the premier organizations that inspect institutions offering degree course study in international hospitality management is the Accreditation Commission for Programs In Hospitality Administration. Schools obtaining accreditation accomplish two objectives: First, such designation qualifies an institution or program as a quality source for education in this field; Secondly it offers ongoing assistance to improve program quality and competence.

Conduct your search for institutions offering a degree in international hospitality management online where you will find a conveniently comfortable method as a first step in your path toward a rewarding career.

Betting on a Great Career Choice

The world’s love affair with financial risk taking has exploded into the multi-billion dollar gaming industry that was once safely tucked away in selected destinations such as Las Vegas, Atlantic City, European locales and tropical settings throughout the world. Now, gaming resorts have popped up in non-exotic locations such as Tunica, Miss., one of the poorest counties in America, where millions flock to take a turn at a roll of the dice.

No Formal Education Required

The industry does not really require any formal education to become a casino manager. However, this is rapidly changing as gaming centers become more popular vacation destinations. Even places once known as “Sin City,” Las Vegas, Nevada, have undergone incredible transformations in an attempt to appeal to more vacationers and not simply catering to gamblers. This has led to gaming centers becoming all-inclusive resorts offering amenities far beyond the poker table. Many of the traditional gaming hotels that line the Las Vegas strip have turned into family-fun destinations with activities geared toward all family members while still offering adult access to the gaming tables. Although all employees at gaming establishments are required to obtain a state license before seeking employment at a casino, up until recently there was little, if any, off-site degree granting education programs preparing individuals for a career as a casino manager.

Gambling on Your Education
Today, many institutions of higher learning offer a course study leading to an Associate of Science Degree in Casino Management. This is a two-year, full-time course of study that specifically trains individuals to oversee casino operations as well as take upon the chores for training other gaming workers working under their supervision. However, since casino management is fairly task specific, obtaining this degree does not necessarily qualify an individual for immediate management employment. What typically occurs is that graduates with an A.S. in Casino Management work for a period of time in different casino employment capacities learning on-the-job skills that, once acquired, become inventory adding to their abilities to manage others. However, the course of study in Casino Management does teach skills pertinent to the duties required by any casino manager including customer relations, business management, public relations, human resources, sales and marketing. Many individuals enrolled in a two-year program of study also gain the opportunity to enter into an internship providing a great deal of hands-on experience while possibly opening the doors to potential employers for a job after graduation.

What to Learn
The minimum educational requirement for entering into an associate-level degree program is to have obtained a high school diploma. Usually, individuals who have obtained a GED certificate are also qualified to enter into an associate-level degree program as well. There are some institutions that also require either SAT or ACT test scores. Once enrolled in an A.S. Casino Management program, students will pursue a course study that may include:

• Gaming fundamentals
• Communications
• Business management skills including counting
• Understanding casino game play, rules and regulations
• Security and Surveillance
• Housekeeping
• Food and beverage Operations
• Organization and planning
• Employee training and supervision

What Opportunity Exists for Gaming Managers?

The U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicates that there is going to be a 23 percent increase in the rise of gaming service workers, including professionals needed to manage these people. This is quite a faster growth in this particular employment segment than in any other average occupation in the country. This is due to the expansion of legalized gambling well beyond its traditional places in New Jersey and Nevada, although these locations still offer the greatest opportunity for casino management careers. In 2008, the average salary for a casino manager was reported at $68,290.

Gaming Managers Need to be Licensed
Although the requirements for both casino managers and gaming workers will vary from state to state, typically individuals will need to pass both a drug test and a criminal background check. There may be a minimum residency requirement for casino managers and individual corporations conducting gaming operations may also have additional set of different requirements.

Check out the exciting possibilities in casino management where you know the growth potential will place you in a winning situation.

What is a Casino Manager?

The movie-produced image of a wise-guy like casino operator with one hand on a gun and the other in his guest’s pocket has long ago been replaced by the polished, educated business demeanor of a gaming professional. Strong-arm tactics have given way to professional management techniques where highly-trained individuals supervise the gaming operations in casino hotels and resorts, riverboats, cruise ships and other gaming establishments throughout the world. These professionals daily work with gaming center employees to ensure that the establishment’s guests and visitors have a satisfactorily good time. Although it is highly recommended that individuals wishing make a career in casino management obtain an associates-level degree, many corporations are known to promote from within offering industry sponsored training for people who begin their careers in entry-level positions.

A Day in the life of a Casino Manager
In the United States alone, legalized gambling is a multibillion dollar industry. And, in most locations, if not all, operations run 24/7, leading to the need for casino gaming floor managers on every shift throughout the day. Although opportunities do exist in traditional spots like Las Vegas and Atlantic City, legalized gaming has expanded in the last several decades to include riverboat and cruise ship settings. Typically, a floor manager will oversee the operations of games that include blackjack, craps, roulette, video and live poker and the ever-popular slot machine. The goal for each gaming floor manager is to make sure that all visitors and guests are enjoying themselves and that the interaction with casino employees, such as dealers, croupiers, wait staff and others, is always upbeat and positive. Managers are also responsible for monitoring security keeping an eye on any suspicious behavior while ensuring that all local laws and regulations concerning casino gaming are followed and respected. A floor manager is usually responsible for a certain section of the casino and reports to a supervisor about all shift activity that may include revenue experienced as well as payouts made.

Additional Supervision Duties
In any facility, to conduct any kind of business, there are certain maintenance concerns that need to be attended plus other activities benefiting the facility that must be supervised and managed including:

• Equipment maintenance, cleaning as well as testing. The casino floor managers will typically create an equipment maintenance schedule as well as conduct thorough testing making sure that the games are in perfect operating condition.
• The training of gaming floor personnel on equipment operations
• Cash handling and accounting responsibilities for their supervised area that would include maintaining company protocol through periodic training of all employees concerning cash responsibilities.

Career Ladder to Success
Until recent years, most casino gaming managers began careers operating the very games they now oversee. After gaining a great deal of experience as a blackjack dealer or croupier, plus proving loyalty and trustworthiness, many individuals earn a promotion to gaming management positions where on-the-job training is provided. Although all entry-level positions in the gaming industry require only a high school diploma or GED, a great deal of emphasis in the last few years has been placed upon casino managers receiving formalized college educations, with a minimum goal toward obtaining an associate-level degree in casino management. Individuals selected for casino management positions are typically people with great communication skills, upbeat personalities, possessing a positive can-do attitude. Anyone engaged in gaming industry employment has to pass a thorough criminal background check in order to obtain a state license.

Opportunity Outpaces Available Trained Professionals
With the expansion of legalized gambling throughout the world, there is more opportunity to fill management positions than there are actual educated, well-trained individuals. Therefore, any gaming industry employees in entry-level position presently may look to increase their employment opportunity – and potential financial and personal reward – by enrolling in a two-year casino management degree program. Although most gaming entry-level positions pay better than the average than entry-level position in other industries, casino managers can make upwards of $60,000 a year or more.

Resort Management Opportunities Continue to Rise

Tourism is definitely on the rebound after the recent worldwide economic downturn. This is an $800 billion industry in the United States alone. Throughout the world it makes up 12 percent of the gross domestic product, employing approximately 10 percent of the entire planet’s labor force. By the year 2020, one- half the people employed in the world will have either a direct or indirect association with the tourism industry. Throughout 32 of the United States, travel-related types of tourism are the number one, two and three top employers.

Destination Recreation Ranks Number One
The number one popular facility in the worldwide tourism industry is what is known as destination resort. These are located throughout the world in the most popular vacation spots that people choose when wishing to go on a holiday. These are located in a variety of different geographic settings from mountainside chalets, seaside complexes, theme parks and other types of facilities that offer features attracting millions of vacationers from around the world. Someone has to run these.

Hospitality Managers are Social Beings
If you don’t like people, stop reading this. A career in resort management is going to put you in constant contact with other human beings – whether it be the employees you supervise, the vendors from whom you purchase, or the guests whom you wish to entertain. As a resort manager, you’ll experience the opportunity to work in a lot of beautiful, exotic places meeting a great deal of diverse and interesting people. But, you’ll first need to develop the knowledge and skills that are necessary to succeed in this field of endeavor.

Training Guarantees Success

Opportunities for hospitality management and those that exist specifically in resort management were , in the past, fundamentally ones made available to people who rose through the ranks of employment at such facilities. However, a couple of decades ago saw an emphasis placed upon formalized training to prepare people to assume a higher quality professional execution when responsible for multi-million dollar operations. Universities, colleges and trade schools throughout the world now offer a variety of different training courses leading to acquisition of these skills. A course of study would include developing skills in leadership, planning and policy, research and evaluation, labor relations, grounds maintenance, technology, compliance, communications, food and beverage, convention planning, and other aspects pertaining to recreation and leisure activity management. Furthermore, a great deal of training that leads to becoming better-than-average resort manager will place participants in real-world settings where they will acquire the skills necessary at every level of employment in order to function in a supervisory capacity in a successful manner.

Learning the Ropes
It is essential for a successful resort manager to participate learning the duties of all the employees under his or her supervision. This would include spending time working as a desk clerk, functioning as a bell person, as well as working in such capacities as a shuttle bus driver, housekeeping, grounds maintenance, waiter or waitress, cook and bartender plus much more. Mega-resorts that are all-inclusive offer a variety of services pampering their guests that can include everything from top-notch vending machines to state-of-the-art fitness centers. Individuals seeking to have a successful career as a result manager must have an understanding of all the operations under their command as well as the personnel duties and functions.

A Stressful Position
A lot of pressure is placed upon a resort manager. Therefore, high quality training and education play key roles preparing professionals to carry the burden of not only managing a staff of employees, but also consistently executing methods for keeping guess satisfied in a positive and always upbeat manner. Resort managers may face unusual problems on a daily basis and their education plus past experience helps them to deal with these many challenges in a productive manner. This is not a position that is limited to a 9-to-5 daily commitment, but becomes more a lifestyle in which one gets paid.

Bachelor Degree Prepares Individuals Correctly
Today, within the hospitality management industry there are several positions where employers seek educated professionals to fill. A four-year course of study leading to a bachelor’s degree in hospitality management, with an emphasis on resort operations, can prepare individuals in a number of different settings found at a resort including convention services manager, special events coordinator, a meeting or conference planner, food and beverage services director, recreation activities coordinator as well as overall operations management in a variety of different capacities on the executive level.

Your Hospitality Career Could Bring You to the Last Resort

The very word “resort” conjures up images of pampered relaxation away from home at luxurious accommodations where a vacationers’ every need is met. These needs include food, drink, lodging, recreation, entertainment and even shopping. Additionally, resorts offer personal needs catering for such things as hair and beauty salons, clothes dry cleaning, medical and more. These operations need executive and departmental managers providing a wide range of career possibilities.

Tourism Runs the Towns
Throughout the world there are towns that contain resorts enabling almost every single business in the community to partake in tourism dollars. Although the term “resort” is sometimes erroneously used to define fine a specific hotel that doesn’t necessarily provide all the amenities found that a resort does, a hotel is usually the central feature you will find at a resort. There are areas of the world where resorts are the engine driving local economies such as throughout tropical climates that are typically known as destination resorts. The facility provides an all-inclusive array of features so visitors never need to leave the premises unless for sightseeing purposes. Even then, outings are usually arranged, conducted and supervised by resort personnel under resort management. The services provided under the resort umbrella are normally of a much higher quality than those you would come to expect at a single hotel or restaurant in a neighboring town. In fact, international companies invest heavily in land and facilities located in popular holiday destinations luring millions of vacationing dollars. Managing the delivery of these services is an employment opportunity for well-trained professionals.

Resort Management Worldwide
Although traveling to a luxury resort does typically conjure up images of palm trees swaying and crystal clear blue-green tropical waters, there are many other type of resorts located in non-tropical locations. These could include gaming centers, golf resorts, tennis resorts, ski resorts, dude ranches and other themed adventure-oriented resorts that may be quite unique in nature. There are exclusive resorts catering to sportsmen that offer adventure-like experiences hunting or fishing at exotic locations throughout the world. Management opportunities at such facilities may require learning a bit about the activities provided. If a resort is theme-based, such as one offering fishing expeditions where the “catch of the day” becomes the meal of the day, on-site management will be well-trained toward providing all the pampering services that are commonly “over-the-top.” Although daily activities might take place in a primitive environment, life back at the “ranch, camp, landing, cabin” or other will possess top-notch accommodations, expert, courteous service and first-rate exquisite food and drink making a visitor’s stay incredibly comfortable and always memorable.

Concentrated Training
Individuals considering a career in resort management will do well planning any acquisition of specific skills that may be quite suited to the location and activities offered at a specific resort. Professionals who are multi-lingual will fare well in an international setting while ones predisposed to winter sports and activities may be quite successful at a ski resort. Often, these ancillary skills are not necessarily part of any hospitality management curriculum. Many times an individual’s hobbies and sports activities may help direct future resort management employment. However, experience and education focusing in subject areas such as psychology, business finance, employee management, public relations, consumer behavior, organization and planning, event coordination, facility risk management, food and beverage plus more will be needed regardless the venue. Furthermore, there are other aspects about resort management education to consider including:

• Do professors have experience and contacts in the hospitality industry?

• Does the program operate student-run hotels, restaurants, or other hospitality businesses?

• Does the program feature other hands-on learning activities such as computer simulations?

• Does the program encourage study abroad?

• Is there an on-campus hospitality association?

• Will the program help you find work after graduation?

• What are recent grads doing now?

It will never hurt if you are an expert downhill skier when applying for a resort management position at a popular ski resort.

Here’s a Tasty Education in Hospitality Management

The mere uttering of the word, “Hospitality,” always conjures up images of sumptuous food consumed in an attractive and comfortable setting. These settings are managed by professionals who have successfully pursued and acquired the knowledge and skills taught through a Bachelor’s level Hospitality Management Food and Beverage program. Students enrolled in such programs study the fundamentals of food and beverage operations preparing them to oversee catering services, drinking establishments, banquet facilities and restaurants.

Food and Beverage is a Popular Choice
All students studying hospitality management receive some sort of food and beverage instruction since these operations are essential throughout the worldwide industry. Employment opportunities within this hospitality industry segment are many since major hotel, resort and cruise ship lines place great emphasis upon food and beverage services. Additionally, catering businesses are in constant need for well-educated and trained professionals who have acquired hospitality degrees specializing in food and beverage operations. Many people choose professional careers in the food and beverage industry that include positions as servers, bartenders, host and hostesses, cooks and chefs who all need the operations they are involved in to be managed by professionals who understand everything from local health codes to producing an effectively tasty, affordable – yet profitable – Tequila Sunrise cocktail.

Course of Study
A student enrolled in a four-year program leading to a Bachelor Degree in Hospitality Management Food and Beverage will first of all need to be a people-oriented person to succeed. This is an industry where a great deal of time is spent interacting with other human beings – guests and customers, employees, supervisors, vendors, trades people, media and more. Therefore, possessing an exuberant, fun-loving, people-pleasing personality is essential before studying the necessary topics to become a successful food and beverage hospitality manager. Your education pursuit will include coursework in:
• Customer Service
• Dining Room Service
• Human Resources
• Safety and Sanitation
• Menu Planning
• Facilities Structure and Maintenance
• Food and Beverage Equipment Operation
• Employee Supervision
• Procurement

More Food on the Table
The US Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that there will be a predicted shortage of qualified food and beverage service managers in the coming decade. This is due, in part, to an ever-increasing American population and the country’s hunger and thirst for eating out – a result from being such a highly mobile and convenience-oriented society. Although many manager positions in the industry become filled by food service workers rising through the ranks, a professional with a bachelor’s level education can attract a great deal of entry-to-mid-level management positions upon completion of a qualified and accredited course of study. The BLS notes that an entry-level salary for professionals with a bachelor’s degree in food and beverage service is about $40,000 per year.

Diversity Provides Opportunity
The diverse nature of the hospitality industry provides a broad array of employment opportunities that may compel students in food and beverage management to focus on specialty areas such as restaurant management or banquet catering. The job requirements and duties may vary widely depending on the venue, for example, between family-friendly resorts to casino operations. Furthermore, graduation from an accredited top-flight training program gives applicants greater exposure when applying for positions in a competitive field. Schools offering excellent food and beverage management training include:

University of Denver
Established in 1946, the School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management (HRTM), at the Daniels College of Business, University of Denver prepares students for senior management positions in the fast-changing and competitive hospitality industry. HRTM graduates possess the knowledge and skills necessary to be successful in all aspects of the hospitality and tourism business.

University of Central Florida
Rosen College of Hospitality Management is located in the largest learning laboratory in the world for hospitality and tourism – Orlando – home to hundreds of tourism venues including Walt Disney and Universal Studios! Students at the Rosen College of Hospitality Management benefit from studying in a city that boasts 42 million visitors each year, and has 120,000 hotel rooms, 4,000 restaurants, and 75 theme parks and attractions.

Oklahoma State University
School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration is known as a program of distinction for more than 65 years. Students are prepared for careers in hospitality through meaningful teaching, quality laboratory practices, and supervised industry work experiences and internships. Learning is “hands on” and provides a bridge between the classroom and professional practice in the field.